Any manufacturing firm can learn a concept from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have arranged the operations in america plus the automotive companies


Any manufacturing firm can learn a concept from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have arranged the operations in america plus the automotive companies

In this work, Darwin showed that the species of plants and animals are variable, and that the present species have evolved naturally from the other species that existed previously. The options that come with the new species are made by the natural choice of the non-directional changes which can be helpful for the organism. Therefore, the form most suited to your current environment will survive. In 1868, Darwin published his second major work called “The Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication,” that was a supplement for his theory (Shanahan 111). In this work, he included many different the specific proof of the evolution of organic kinds drawn from the centuries-old practice. The 3rd great focus on the theory of evolution named “The Descent of Man” ended up being published in 1871, by adding the book “The Expression of this Emotions in Man and Animals”, this provides you with it a logical ending (Shanahan 249).

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The Evolution of Darwinism

Although Darwin’s theory ended up being based on a wide array of facts, ended up being carefully designed and looked really convincing, it offers met a resistance within the clinical community and secular society. Even the secular press of this time had written that Darwin’s a few ideas are not only unscientific, however if these are typically widespread, the morality would lose its steady authority.what is the purpose of a profile essay Therefore, the adoption associated with theory of evolution was a hard fight, but Darwin himself failed to be a part of it because of his poor health. In addition, the economic independence associated with really wealthy Darwin household allowed him never to take part in the “struggle for existence.”

Darwin’s theory hasn’t triumphed instantly and simultaneously in most countries. As a result of the efforts of Hooker, Lyell and Huxley in England, Haeckel and Mueller in Germany, it is often established in these countries throughout the life of Darwin (Masci 758). In France it had been perhaps not successful, because its clinical groups were dominated by the thought of catastrophism by G. Cuvier, and also the theory failed to find active supporters. As a whole, along the way associated with formation and evolution of Darwin’s theory (that has happened throughout its history), the controversy ended up being centered on a limited number of the key problems – the evidence associated with rightness or wrongness associated with evolutionary a few ideas. In particular, Darwin agreed to search for them within the fossils. He hoped that over time, interspecific transitional life kinds, which prove the rightness of his teaching, is found. Since that time, thousands and thousands of fossils were discovered, however the situation remained rather tense. Merely a few findings could hardly pass for transitional kinds. Furthermore, between different vertebrates (fish, reptiles, and birds) there were at the least some dubious transitional kinds, and also the means of transition from invertebrates to vertebrates remained a mystery. In addition, there were no convincing types of transitional kinds within the plant kingdom (Yahya 47).

Nonetheless, Darwinism gradually gained energy, which allowed him never to tune in to the authoritative opponents. For instance, the famous works of Louis Pasteur, showing no traces of spontaneous generation in inanimate nature, were met with hostility. Within the days of Pasteur, the theory of germs was flourishing. Just before his work, people thought that the emergence of worms within the meat and fermentation of wine was a spontaneous processes (Yahya 17). Being a result, on the list of males of science, perhaps not all have perceived the thought of Darwinism. In England, included in this ended up being the founder associated with British Museum of Natural History, the anatomist Richard Owen, who opposed to the a few ideas of Darwin from a scientifically-based position. By the first twentieth century, it became clear for several that Darwin’s theory is flawed, because it remained unconfirmed within the fossil record. As a result, the various supporters of Darwinism begun to tinker and improve it, creating neo-Darwinism or the synthetic theory of evolution. Ever since then, it really is constantly evolving and is known even nowadays.

A vital take on Darwin’s Theory

Darwin’s teaching is dependant on the explained facts of evolution, which is the foundation associated with modern evolutionary theory. Nonetheless, the latter could not have been produced on a single comparison of naturalistic facts. Therefore, one may assume that that Darwin’s evolutionism associated with 1840s was developed within the framework associated with old a few ideas of natural theology, which advertised that God has established all of the existing things (Masci 759). In his works, Darwin used the language that has been characteristic associated with natural theology. Nonetheless, he started filling the old religious principles utilizing the evolutionary content. Thus, you can argue that Darwin has drawn a hypothesis by means of the creature that is able to create a selection far more properly when compared to a human. The omnipresent and all-seeing being is able to look in the organisms and make the selection of their significant variations and features that occur very seldom in nature and may even guarantee their survival in the future. This line of reasoning has directly testified that Darwin failed to break up utilizing the old theological ideas. Apparently, the immediate reasons for the Creator to the evolutionary process has served being a primary explanation associated with changes occurring utilizing the species, while a little stock of intraspecific variations has already established lower priority (Shanahan 118).

It really is worth mentioning that Darwin paid little focus on the meaning of variability, which is the adaptive response of organisms to your environmental factors. He thought that the primary material for the evolution is supplied by the so-called indefinite variability occurring intoxicated by the external environment, but doesn’t have an adaptive nature, i.e. it emerges spontaneously with out a particular reason. On the other hand, various opposing theories offered the dominant role in the process of evolution to adaptation.order paper online Based on these theories, the adaptive changes are inherited and therefore are the material for the evolutionary process. Nonetheless, particular changes of adaptive kind – the so-called adaptive improvements (e.g. the crooked trunk associated with tree that grew in harsh conditions) – are not inherited (Wallace 85). Only the ability of organisms to the particular external factors is transported from a single generation to a different, as evidenced by the consistency with which the adaptive improvements appear once again after the restoration associated with former conditions. In addition, numerous experiments show that the hereditary changes growing within the organisms are not adaptive. The adaptive improvements are perhaps not the new abilities, however the response developed due to your evolution of organisms (Wallace 86). Furthermore, most of the other principles of evolution that explained the driving forces associated with historical process in nature were speculative or in line with the idealistic attitude. Nonetheless, the materialistic nature of Darwin’s theory caused it to be unacceptable to your conservative element of biologists and religiously-minded groups. Still, it ought to be noted that in order to enhance the theory of natural selection, Darwin lacked several things, and especially genetics – the core of biology. Also, Darwin wasn’t strong in logics, and some of his statements were contradictory. For instance, he was not able to explain the simultaneous existence of complex (the animals) and simple (the germs) types of living organisms, while, based on his theory, lower beings always evolved to the higher ones (Yahya 58). Furthermore, mathematicians have over and over repeatedly drawn focus on the neo-Darwinian tautology in the provisions associated with survival and adaptation – species survive because they are able to adapt, and also the power to adapt provides their survival. Enough time factor can be the a key point for the theories of Darwinism and neo-Darwinism: there has always been enough time for the evolution, and also the same time factor ruled out an experimental test of whether there was variability in species as a result of change in the habitat conditions (Yahya 124). Therefore, as a result of unverifiable biological macroevolution (from molecules to a man), the Darwin’s theory can be viewed as the item of faith, and is said to be derived beyond science.

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The Value for the Evolutionary Theory

Despite all of the flaws and disadvantages of his teaching, Darwin is among the most first man in history to build up the theory of biological evolution. It really is of great methodological importance and hasn’t only plainly and convincingly justified the thought of organic evolution, but additionally has caused it to be possible to check on the credibility of the extremely theory of evolution. It’s a decisive stage of 1 of the best conceptual revolutions in science. Probably the most crucial event in this clinical revolution ended up being the replacement associated with theological a few ideas of evolution, which reported that plants and creatures were produced inside their modern kind. Despite intense criticism, Darwin’s theory quickly gained recognition simply because that the historical development of nature explained the observed occasions much better than the immutability of species. To substantiate his theory, Darwin, contrary to his predecessors, has attracted a large amount of facts open to him from a variety of areas. Highlighting the biotic relations and their popular interpretation ended up being an crucial innovation associated with idea of Darwinian evolution. It gives the proper to summarize that Darwin created his own idea of the fight for existence. It had been fundamentally different from the a few ideas of Darwin’s precursors. This is actually the essence associated with clinical need for Darwinism.

Another merit of Darwinism is his revelation associated with driving forces associated with organic evolution. The further development of biology has deepened and complemented his views, that has formed the foundation of modern Darwinism. Nowadays, in most biological disciplines, the leading spot is occupied by the historical research techniques that allow examining an individual path of evolution of different organisms and penetrating deeply to the essence of biological phenomena. The evolutionary theory of Darwin was widely used in modern synthetic theory, where in actuality the only leading factor of evolution is natural selection, the material for which is supplied by the mutations. a historical analysis of Darwin’s theory inevitably provides rise to your new methodological issues of science, which might be the topic of a special study. The answers to these problems entail widening of the field of knowledge, and therefore the clinical progress in many areas: biology, medicine, as well as psychology, on that the evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin had no less influence than in the natural sciences. Furthermore, the Darwinian approach has enabled a competent conversion of pets and cultivars, and breeding of new, more productive strains of microorganisms which can be used because the producers of antibiotics. Therefore, Darwinism has established the foundation for viewing the whole biosphere associated with planet being a complex evolving system, which might potentially allow humans to control the evolutionary process.

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Globalisation, outsourcing along with other trends have explicitly impacted supply chain actions and strategies of Toyota, along with other businesses. Nonetheless, Japanese businesses such as for instance Toyota also face many different challenges which can be pretty much unique for their nations.  Many of these challenges are related to the problems of flexibility (Heizer & Render 2014). Toyota Company tends to be less far along with its established standardised global running models; mostly since it supplies chain process is tightly defined by the enterprise technology. The net impact is that broadening or changing the business supply chain reach often become more complicated, and therefore, less equipped to deal with common issues common within the emergent market (McKeller 2014).

Comparative research between American and Japanese Supply Chain Management

Many manufacturers are nowadays worried about inefficiency and delivery methods of the businesses. Therefore, businesses are increasingly replicating successful supply chain management so that they can guarantee efficiency inside their supply systems (McKeller 2014). Any manufacturing firm can learn a concept from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have arranged the operations in america plus the automotive companies.  In between 1980s and 1990, Japanese automakers established volume production capability in america, therefore, their practices of manufacturing became the typical of quality for the united states automotive industry (Morana 2013).  Ever since then, such methods went beyond the Just-in-time delivery associated with parts to a plane and encompassed all lean manufacturing aspects.  Relocated Japanese automakers realised that their success mostly depended on establishing a neighborhood supply chain, which implied sharing of similar manufacturing management technologies and methods utilizing the US companies in order to be competitive in Japan (Morana 2013). Though it had been initially perceived impossible thinking about the size associated with continent and transportation system, Japanese businesses within the United States appear to prove otherwise. US automobile manufacturers started utilizing the Just-in-time (JIT)   logistical approach from their companies.

Japanese Automakers, in comparison with their US counterparts, tend to emphasise on long term business model. When Honda, Toyota and Nissan established an engine and construction plants in the united states, they brought most of their nationals companies which had already grasped the lean concept and supply logistics (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014).  However, force from the government made the automakers seek local supply sources that could meet their stringent, quality, price and delivery criteria. As a result, Japanese businesses had either to simply accept poor performance or invest their relationship utilizing the US companies. Being a result, they chose to purchase supplier development initiatives (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). Nonetheless, the American supply chain had been strenuous specifically for the automakers before adoption associated with lean concept. For example, Johnson Controls, an American firm that delivered seats for the Toyota just few hours prior to the seat were installed within the construction line (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014). Nonetheless, before dealing with Toyota, the supplier might have a huge inventory of seats. Later, after dealing with Toyota, the degrees of inventory transpired from 32 days to 4.1 days.

The supplier plants making and shipping comparable product to both the united states and Japanese customers maintains lower levels of inventory for the Japanese businesses than they do for the united states automakers. Companies serving Japanese firm reached an inventory turnover of 38.3 when compared with 24.4 for the united states customers. They also maintain a lot less work in progress inventory, finished products and on wheel inventory for their Japanese customers.  a crucial variation also happens on the list of Japanese and US customers (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). On the list of transplanted automakers of Japan, Toyota is regarded as the first lean manufacturer with its Toyota production system. In USA, Chrysler leads its US peer, having committed to JIT systems so you can get parts to its construction plants. On the other hand, Ford has got the highest on-the-wheel inventory (Saban 2012).

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Although, American businesses continue to lag behind their Japanese competitors, the united states automakers work towards enhancing.  Whereas in the past weekly deliveries were common, there’s been a significant change towards daily deliveries and, thus, supported efforts toward reduced amount of the inventory.  For example, regardless of its high on-the-wheel inventory, it is often moving aggressively towards realisation of a far better and efficient, small-lot deliveries as part of the Ford production system (Saban 2012). You might expect that reducing the inventory would enhance the danger of missing deliveries to your client and shutting down of the construction line, as an aspect that would end in more expensive shipment by expedited trucks. Nonetheless, despite operating with much less inventory, Japanese transplants are not having to pay more for emergency shipping. Rather, they pay less in emergency shipping of roughly $371 per million sales than US automaker that pays $714 per million sales.  Toyota companies would be the most useful performers with $204 while Chrysler is by far the worst with $1,235 (Packowski 2014).

Lean Production System, the advantages and Challenges to your Motor Industry

Although, plenty was written about Just-in-time delivery along with lean manufacturing, there appears to be a misunderstanding regarding how exactly to utilise the above approaches effectively. Lean manufacturing is definitely an ideology that focuses on delivering quality items in the most reasonably priced through focusing at value stream focus (Saban 2012). The worthiness stream requires all steps along the way which can be necessary to convert raw material into the item the customer desires.  As a result, any step up the process that fails to achieve this goal is normally considered wasteful within the operations. Ultimate goal associated with lean supply chain management would be to decrease the waste, so the product flows because effectively as you can. Nonetheless, the main element part of the lean manufacturing process is the JIT delivery that ensures getting appropriate part at the right time (Packowski 2014).

The birth of lean manufacturing philosophy was in Japan within Toyota in 1940s. Toyota production systems were based around to make a continuous flow which failed to depend on long production runs to be efficient (Packowski 2014).  The model is totally based on recognition that only small percentage associated with total time and effort to process something is added value to your end client. Lean manufacturing starts utilizing the customer’s definition associated with value. Value isn’t defined by the company engineer, managers or the shareholder, but such a thing the client is ready to purchase. Thus, because the manufacturing process forms the automobile of delivering value to your client, the principle of lean thinking focuses on delivery product which can be attractive to the customers’ needs (Monden 2012).

Nonetheless, to be able to link all of the elements in the supply chain, it is crucial to ensure the flow of value. It’s a concept probably the most people contradicts utilizing the mass production systems (Monden 2012). For example, Toyota realised that absence of flow within the manufacturing process is the reason huge warehouses that home mass of inventory that consumes working capital associated with firm. Within the lean production process, value stream links the occasions or activities that ultimately deliver value to your consumer because it crosses functional and organisational boundaries (Monden 2012).  Within the lean production concept, any activity or process that fails to include worth to your consumer is known as waste. Nonetheless, the idea recognises that not totally all process is really a waste, particularly economic control they form a vital area of the company though they don’t add value to your client.

Great things about Lean Production System

Lean principles minimise all kind of waste from the source. Through the idea, many sourced elements of the waste in Motor industry such as used machines and production of defected parts are detected and correct earlier within the production process. As an aspect that limits transfer of such errors to your ultimate product associated with car (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).  Also, it permits identification of other designs of wastes such as for instance environmental conditions that impacts operation efficiency. In addition, implementing lean maxims in company enhances staff satisfaction since their input is needed in implementation of the idea (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). Employees are termed to be the best in pinpointing the origin of waste and operation inefficiency within the motor industry. Therefore, inclusion within the process nurtures a sense of duty, ownership and eventually results in satisfaction, a important aspect in improving productivity and efficiency in production process.

The idea supplies a competitive advantage because it paid off the cost and improved efficiency. The method introduces system and develops skills in the staff, an element that support operation changes that scale the production process (Ciravegna 2012).  Because it permits the motor businesses to save lots of area within the warehouses, the additional area may be used for new auto-spare parts or other items. The idea can be accredited because of its power to save yourself time because it makes a staff adapt and react to new work in a quick and efficient manner, therefore, ensuring consumers’ needs are met (Ciravegna 2012). The idea provides the firm a competitive advantage since operation is normally first, with brief iterations, minimal waste and timely delivery.


In most motor industry, lean production method can be overused resulting to inefficiency of operations. This often occurs when tracking of productivity and also the waste start to affect the time employed for production. Initial implementation of lean maxims results in larger returns, however the productivity tends to drop with time (In Golińska 2014).  Therefore, so that they can push such expectations, it is crucial to examine the worthiness of improvement. For instance, refined throughput of 1000 parts an hour or so in a single area, but with only 500 parts from the previous stage implies that results haven’t improved (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). The idea also acts a supply of frustration to your worker. This occurs whenever a particular amount of refinement are achieved, the business applies the lean approach to realise more economy from the production process, an element that discourages the worker,  reverse positive motivation and undermines the business leadership (In Golińska 2014).  A trend indicating revert to previous improvement often shows staff resentment to your process. Therefore, striking a balance between your stasis and continuous improvement is really a critical challenge that faces any lean environment.  Nonetheless, complex businesses such as motor manufacturing firm are susceptible to such refinement because of complex nature of the operations (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).

Analysis of JIT production and offer Management

Suitability of Toyota supply chain management was numerously questioned, particularly from a environmental perspective. Nonetheless, it really is evident Toyota recognises that a stable supply chain is a significant part of maintaining its manufacturing process (Chopra & Meindl 2013). The business works closely with companies to be able to enhance its manufacturing procedures and productivity. Toyota is reputable because of its manufacturing operations that eradicate non-value adding activity. So that they can enhance sustainability, Toyota has programs that permit sharing of skills and knowledge utilizing the neighborhood companies to be able to guarantee their long-term sustainability (Agrawal 2010).

Toyota recognises need for having sustainable and capable automotive parts manufacturers that are globally competitive. The business through its JIT concept continues to operate closely with government and also the industry to implements supplier improvement initiatives to enhance capabilities of neighborhood companies (Chopra & Meindl 2013). A team of experts in Toyota’s supplier development collaboratively works together with the supplier to embed the maxims of Toyota production System (TPS) inside their manufacturing operations. The TPS strives for a completed eradication associated with waste in most facet of production to maximise efficiency. The business closely works together with its companies in identification and implementation of safety, quality, price and productivity improvement (Agrawal 2010).

Also, sustainable JIT needs to be eco-efficiency and can be  achieved through management of links within the supply chain to make sure these are typically aligned  with consumer service level  which involves acquisition of  recycleables and  delivery associated with product to your client via design, procurement, production and distribution (Prater & Whitehead 2013).  Nonetheless, the employment of JIT in Toyota has promoted sustainable logistics since its escalation in operational efficiency and environmental sustainability in the transport and logistics system. Also, Toyota JIT manufacturing strategy was centered on changing the factory layout, therefore, eliminates the requirement to transporting product right back and forth to different machines; rather it arranges the equipment to ensure items flow smoothly from a single machine to the other (Prater & Whitehead 2013). This significantly reduces the energy used, therefore, marketing environmental sustainability.  JIT concept permits the business to lessen the quantity of waste manufactured in term of defects because the system is made to automatically detect the defects and only proceed until a individual intervention fix the problem (Prater & Whitehead 2013).

Within the face of international competition, businesses focus more on customers needs and seek way of reducing costs, improve quality. As a result, many companies have identified logistics as areas to construct benefits of price and service (Fliedner 2012).  Just-in-time (JIT) management approach, that has typically been proved effective in manufacturing sector in quality enhancement, productivity and efficiency, improved communication and reduced amount of costs and waste permits the businesses to accomplish a competitive advantage through logistic (Fliedner 2012). The approach originated from Japan in 1950s. Ever since then, it is often later adopted by Toyota and another Japanese manufacturing firm due to its possible to improve productivity while eliminating waste. In Japan, waste manufacturing process is described as anything else other than equipment, material and workers that are important in production (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). The idea underlying the JIT is to find ways to make processes better utilizing the ultimate objective of producing products or services without incurring any waste.

JIT forms a integrated problem management perspective that aims at improving the standard and timeliness in production, supply and distribution.  Toyota, the first company to realise full potential of JIT believed that the only method to make JIT efficient was to have every individual in the organisation involved and dedicated to the machine, resources and processes are fully utilised for the most output and efficiency and also the product are sent to fulfill the market needs without delay (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). To accomplish objectives associated with JIT, the procedure mostly hinges on the signals between different sections within the manufacturing process. Nonetheless, JIT relies heavily on other important elements in the inventory chain.  For instance, effective application can not be independent of other key components of the lean manufacturing system. Regardless of its influence within the manufacturing process, focusing JIT in the presupposition of steadiness is usually inherently flawed (Iyer, Seshadri & Vasher 2009).

Personal Reflections on Toyota Supply Management

it really is evident that international motor industry is facing challenges with its supply chain management, particularly because the industry becomes globalised; the problem is complicated by increased competition and also the urge to meet consumer needs. Nonetheless, improving sustainability of key supply chain management and model embraced by key businesses such as for instance Toyota continues to be a challenge. Although, the question was raised regarding suitability of JIT concept from a environmental perspective, I am associated with opinion that improving and reinforcing environmental management within the supply chain will likely be critical for Toyota (Drake 2012).  To be able to produce safe and clean items, it is important that all Toyota firms form concerted efforts to control the environmental impact through its supply chains.

Toyota needs to develop green purchasing guideline because of its suppliers considering the changes in environmental legal guidelines that have happened globally within the modern times. Such guideline will mostly reinforce the management of substances of concerns from managing raw material, through design, development, production and delivery associated with product. Explicit requirements vary susceptible to the kind of industry and also the commodity created by the supplier. Nonetheless, supplier needs to be anticipated to comply with the relevant environmental needs.  Improving sustainability associated with Toyota JIT model, Toyota needs to give a guideline on corporate social duty (Fliedner 2012). Such guideline has to entail company expectations associated with companies within the regions of environmental, safety and human being legal rights and complement the green purchasing guidelines.

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The next decade was the most fruitful in the life of Carl Theodor Dreyer: he became a director. From 1920 to 1927 he was able to produce seven feature films. Finding way to them wasn’t as easy as he’d to go from the country, and discover sponsorship.

In 1925, after the success associated with the film ‘Honor your wife’, Dreyer received an offer to operate in France. He received an offer to make three films based on real historical stories, probably involving kings. Nonetheless, Dreyer ended up being perhaps not thinking about regal people; he chose to create a film that describes the final days of Joan of Arc. The job process took a lot more than 2 yrs, however the result ended up being worth every penny: ‘The Passion of Joan of Arc’” continues to be considered among the best works of the great director (Milne, 22).

Utilizing the advent associated with sound era it became far more difficult for Dreyer to improve money for his films. In addition, within the thirties the whole Scandinavian cinema was in crisis. It order never to fall within the final melancholy, Dreyer chose to go back to journalism. For the 3rd decade associated with twentieth century, he was able to write many articles concerning the movie that became the material for the book ‘On the movie’. After that Carl Theodor Dreyer was able to go back to the cinema, but until his death he was haunted by the possible lack of funds to implement his plans.

Across the same time, when Dreyer received a license to operate ‘Dagmar’, that is, in 1952, he began focusing on the script for his new film ‘The Word’. When the film arrived on the scene, Dreyer recalled he desired to get this to film once he saw the ‘Word’ within the theater at its premiere in 1932 (Drum & Drum, 14). It offers artistic integrity and a kind of artistic naturalness, which is really suited to the film.

Briefly thereafter, he wrote to Kaj Munk, whom he had never met in person, and asked him just how much he’s ready to sell the legal rights. When the amount of cash turned into rather high Dreyer, didn’t stop thinking, but he was perhaps not thinking about the money but about ‘The Word’. Only two years after he had written a script staging ‘Kaj Munk’ served being a Lutheran pastor within the fishing community in Jutland, where he went after the theological faculty associated with University of Copenhagen. In 1924 Munk ended up being engaged in literary work, and is the author of about fifteen plays. In addition, Munk was a publicist and active anti-fascist. Back in 1938, he wrote articles against Benito Mussolini. Throughout the German occupation he failed to cease in his sermons to condemn fascism and Danish collaborators. Regardless of the entreaties of friends, Munk failed to wish to enter hiding, as well as in 1944 he was shot by three officers of Gestapo far from their own home. Munk ended up being probably one of the most famous Danes who were killed for their beliefs throughout the occupation (Drum & Drum, 10).

In 1943, the ‘Word’ ended up being filmed in Sweden, and also the role played by older Borg Victor and Inger role by Wanda Rotgart, with who a year later dreyer was so unhappy throughout the filming of the ‘two’.

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